Innovation and graphic facilitation

Deborah Espiner, Frances Hartnett

Abstract


INTRODUCTION: Social work practice includes the facilitation of effective communication in planning, solution finding, developing shared understandings and collaborative decision making with individuals, families, colleagues and professionals and community groups. Changing social contexts require innovations and new approaches to practice.

METHODS: This article proposes that graphic facilitation (Sibbett, 1977, 2002) can be used as a way of enhancing social work practice by promoting anti-oppressive practice (Dominelli, 2002) and collaborative partnerships (Bracht, Kingsbury, & Rissel, 1999; Roose, Roets, Van Houte, Vandenhole, & Reynaert, 2013) and thinking differently (Gambrill, 2013). Graphic facilitation is a practice that produces “rich pictures” (Checkland, 1981) to elicit and record information in a responsive and innovative way. Drawing on examples from practice, illustrations of the use of graphic facilitation will be presented in two contexts: person-centred planning and World Café.

FINDINGS: Literature supports the effectiveness of using graphics to develop a visual language and produce a “rich picture” that is easily understood and remembered. The use of pictures can stimulate new meaning and insight, and promote reflection and deep learning (Checkland, 1981; Horan, 2000). Graphic facilitation has been reported to increase engagement, understanding and result in a more energised process to bring about change.

CONCLUSIONS: Graphic facilitation is a method that can be added to a social work tool-box. The examples provided demonstrate the potential capacity of this approach to support individuals and groups in different, creative and innovative ways.


Keywords


innovative practice; social work; creativity; graphic facilitation; rich pictures

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agerbeck, B. (2012). The graphic facilitator’s guide. Chicago, IL: Loosetooth.com Library.

Amando, A. N., & McBride, M. (2001). Increasing person-centered thinking: Improving the quality of person-centered planning: A manual for person-centered planning facilitators. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration.

Amering, M., & Schmolke, M. (2009). Recovery in mental health: Reshaping scientific and clinical responsibilities. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.

Anderson, C. J., & Imperia, G. (1992). The corporate annual report: A photo analysis of male and female portrayals. International Journal of Business Communications, 29(2), 113–128.

Armstrong, T. (1987). In their own way. New York, NY: Tarcher Press.

Armstrong, M., & Dorsett, P. (2015). Panning for gold: The personal journey of mental health wellness and its relationship with Planning Alternatives Tomorrows with Hope (PATH). Journal of Social Inclusion, 6(2), 36–50.

Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2012). How people use rich pictures. In Open University Colloquium. Pictures to help people think and act, 07 March 2012, Open University, Milton Keynes.Blakeney, B., Carleton, P., McCarthy, C., & Coakley, E. (2009). Unlocking the power of innovation. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(2), Manuscript 1.

Bracht, N., Kingsbury, L., & Rissel, C. (1999). A five-stage community organisational model for health promotion. In N. Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level-2-new advances (pp. 83–104). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Breton, M. (1994). On the meaning of empowerment and empowerment-oriented social work practice. Social Work With Groups, 17(3), 23-37. doi:10.1300/J009v17n03_03

Brown, J., & Isaacs, D. (2005). The World Cafe: Shaping our futures through conversations that matter. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koelher.

Brown, L. (2010). Balancing risk and innovation to improve social work practice. British Journal of Social Work, 40(4), 1211–1228.

Bunker, B., & Alban, B. (1997). Large group interventions: Engaging the whole system for rapid change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Checkland, P. (1981). Systems thinking, systems practice. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.

Chenoweth, L., & McAuliffe, D. (2015). The road to social work and human service practice: An introductory text, 4th ed. Southbank, VIC, Australia: Thomson.

Coholic, D. A., & Eys, M. (2016). Benefits of an arts-based mindfulness group intervention for vulnerable children. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 33(1), 1–13. doi:10.1007/s10560-015-0431-3

Congleton, C. (2011). Action research at LILA: Exploring the role of graphic facilitation in adult learning. Retrieved from http://www.think-incolour.com.au/wpcontent/uploads/2012/05/Congleton_AR-final_5-11.pdf

Dominelli, L. (2002). Anti-oppressive practice in context. In R. Adams, L. Dominelli, & M. Payne (Eds.), Social work: Themes, issues and critical debates, 2nd ed. (pp. 3–19). New York, NY: Palgrave.

DuBois, B., & Miley, K. (2011). Social work: An empowering profession, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Espiner, D. A., & Guild, D. (2008). Turning up the volume: Young adults reflect on their secondary school experience. In C. Rubie-Davies & C. Rawlinson (Eds.), Challenging thinking about teaching and learning (pp. 244–271). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Espiner, D. A., & Guild, D. (2011). The circle of courage in transition planning. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 20(2), 44–49. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2292/11301

Espiner, D., & Hartnett, F. M. (2012). “I felt I was in control of the meeting”: Facilitating planning with adults with an intellectual disability. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(1), 62–70. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3156.2011.00684.x

Espiner, D. A., & Guild, D. (2012). Capturing what matters most: Engaging students and their families in educational planning. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44(5), 56–67.

Fouché, C., & Light, G. (2011). An invitation to dialogue: The World Café in social work. Qualitative Social Work, 10(1), 28–48. doi:10.1177/1473325010376016

Gambrill, E. (2013). Social work practice: A critical thinker's guide, 3rd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Gardner, H. (1985). Frames of mind: Theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Gilgun, J. F. (2005). The 4-D: Strengths-based assessment instruments for youth their families and communities. Journal of Human Behaviour in the Social Environment, 10(4), 454–473.

Graber, D. A. (1989). Content and meaning: What’s it all about? The American Behavioral Scientist, 33(2), 144–152.

Hafford-Letchfield, T., Lambley, S., Spolander, G., & Cocker, C. (2014). Inclusive leadership in social work and social care. Bristol, United Kingdom: Policy Press.

Hick, S. (2002). Introduction to anti-oppressive practice: Challenges for social work. Critical Social Work, 3, 1. Retrieved from http://www1.uwindsor.ca/criticalsocialwork/2002-volume-3-no-1

Ho, R. T. H., Potash, J. S., Ho, A. H. Y., Ho, V. F. L., & Chen, E. Y. H. (2016). Reducing mental illness stigma and fostering empathic citizenship: Community arts collaborative approach. Social Work in Mental Health. doi:10.1080/15332985.2016.1236767

Hooper, K., Low, J., & Kearins, H. (2003). Pictures in New Zealand annual reports: Winner & losers. Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal, 3(2), 83–107.

Horan, P. (2000).Using rich pictures in information systems teaching. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Systems Thinking in Management (pp. 257–262). Geelong, Australia.

Horn, R. E. (1998). Visual language: Global communication for the 21st century. Bainbridge Island: MacroVU Press. Retrieved from http://www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/SpchPackard.html

Joffe, H. (2008). The power of visual material: Persuasion, emotion and identification. Diogenes, 55(1), 84–93. doi:10.1177/039219210708791

Jones, M. J., & Shoemaker, P. A. (1994). Accounting narratives: A review of empirical studies of content and readability. Journal of Accounting Literature, 13, 142–184.

Känkänen, P., & Bardy, M. (2014). Life stories and arts in child welfare: Enriching communication. Nordic Social Work Research, 4(1), 37–51. doi:10.1080/2156857x.2013.781536

Kelly, S. (2005). The benefits of using graphic recording/graphic facilitation. Retrieved from http://www.theworldcafe.com/pdfs/graphicBenefits.pdf

Kim, W. C., & Mauborgne, R. (2002). Charting your company’s future. Harvard Business Review, 7–83.

Mauzey, J., & Harriman, R. (2003).Creativity inc: Building an inventive organization. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

McCashen, W. (2005). The strengths approach. Bendigo, VIC, Australia: St. Luke's Innovative Resources.

McKitterick, B. (2015). Self-leadership in social work: Reflections from practice. Chicago, IL: Policy Press.

Mendoza Straffon, L. (2014). Art in the making: The evolutionary origins of visual art as a communication signal. Department of Art History, Leiden University Centre for the Arts in Society (LUCAS), Faculty of Humanities, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands .

Merkley, C. (2005). The history and evolution of the graphic facilitation/recording field.

Retrieved from http://www.makemark.com/articles/

Mullen, K., & Thompson, J. (2013). Graphic recording: Using vivid visuals to communicate climate change. The Electronic Journal of Communication, 23. Retrieved from http://www.cios.org/www.cios.org/EJCPUBLIC/023/3/023034.html

Nandan, M., London, M., & Bent-Goodley, T. (2015). Social workers as social change agents: Social innovation, social intrapreneurship, and social entrepreneurship. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership and Governance, 39(1), 38–56. doi:10.1080/23303131.2014.955236

Payne, M. (2014). Modern social work theory, 4th ed. Houndsmills, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillian.

Pearpoint, J., O’Brien, J., & Forest, M. (1995). PATH: A workbook for planning positive possible futures. Toronto, ONT: Inclusion Press.

Roam, D. (2009). Unfolding the napkin: The hands-on method for solving complex problems with simple pictures. London, England: Portfolio.

Roberts, N. (2000). Wicked problems and network approaches to resolution. International Public Management Review, 1(1). Retrieved from http://www.ipmr.net ©International Public Management Network.

Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centred therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory. London, United Kingdom: Constable.

Roose, R., Roets, G., Van Houte, S., Vandenhole, W., & Reynaert, D. (2013). From parental engagement to the engagement of social work services: Discussing reductionist and democratic forms of partnership with families. Child and Family Social Work, 18, 449–457 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2206.2012.00864

Sakamoto, I., & Pitner, R. (2005). Use of critical consciousness in anti-oppressive social work practice: Disentangling power dynamics at personal and structural levels. British Journal of Social Work, 35, 435–452. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bch190Saleebey, D. (1996). The strengths perspective in social work practice: Extensions and cautions. Social Work, 41(3), 296–305. doi:10.1093/sw/41.3.296

Sanderson, H. (2000). Person-centred planning: Key features and approaches. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Sanderson Associates (n.d.). Person-centred thinking tools. Retrieved from http://www.helensandersonassociates.co.uk/person-centred-practice/person-centred-thinking-tools/

Sibbett, D. (1977). “I see what you mean!” A guide to group graphics. San Francisco, CA: Author.

Sibbett, D. (2002). The facilitator’s handbook: A quick guide to inclusion facilitation. Nottingham, United Kingdom: Inclusion Solutions.

Sibbett, D. (2008). Visual intelligence: Using the deep patterns of visual language to build cognitive skills. Theory into Practice, 47(2), 118–127. doi:10.1080/00405840801992306

Sibbett, D. (2010). Visual meetings: How graphics, stick notes and idea mapping can transform group productivity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Simpson, L. (2000). The annual report: An exercise in ignorance? Accounting Forum, 24(3), 231–247.

Steenkamp, N., & Hooks, J. (2011). Does including pictorial disclosure of intellectual capital resources make a difference? Pacific Accounting Review, 23(1), 52–58.

Tierney, P. R. (2003). The competitive advantages of rich media. Special Supplement to E Content and Information Today, June, S4–S5. Retrieved from http://www.econtentmag.com/Downloads/Whitepapers/jun03/tierney.pdf

Tyler, C., Valek, L., & Rowland, R. (2005).Graphic facilitation and large-scale interventions supporting dialogue between cultures at a global, multicultural, interfaith event. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41(1), 139–152. doi:10.1177/0021886304272850

Valenza, C., & Adkins, J. (2009). Understanding visual thinking: The history and future of graphic facilitation. Interactions, 16(4), 38–43. doi:10.1145/1551986.1551994

Weick, K. E. (1995). Sense-making in organisations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Williams, V., Porter, S., & Marriott, A. (2014). Your life, your choice: Support planning led by disabled people's organisations. British Journal of Social Work, 44(5), 1197–1215.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.11157/anzswj-vol28iss4id298

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.