A review of adults with disabilities transitioning from their family home to community settings

Garry Lim

Abstract


INTRODUCTION: This study examined the experiences of adults with disabilities (AWDs) transitioning to community based residential settings. This field of study has not been sufficiently researched despite being a key aspect of adulthood.

METHOD: A literature review of articles relating to residential transitions for AWDs was undertaken.

FINDINGS: The literature review findings could be grouped around three main categories: AWDs’ perception and self-determination, caregivers’ perceptions of the process and, lastly, the insights from service providers and social policies. The review and feedback identified issues experienced during the residential transition, such as feelings of readiness to transit which relate closely to the person’s self-determination. As the study delved deeper into the residential transition process in Aotearoa New Zealand, AWDs are noted to be vulnerable persons always requiring support in order to develop and maintain their independence.

IMPLICATIONS: Substantive state recognition, such as a social compact, is the key groundwork for this marginalised group to develop self-efficacy, have successful transition experiences and sustain good lives. Eventually, this must be in the form of Crown-binding legislation, where vulnerable adults are served through restorative and protective policies. 


Keywords


disability; adult disability; independent living;

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bank-Mikkelsen, N. (1969). A metropolitan area in Denmark: Copenhagen. In R. Kugel & W. Wolfensberger (Eds.), Changing residential patterns for the mentally retarded (pp. 363–376). Washington DC: President’s Committee on Mental Retardation.

Berry, J. O. (1995). Families and deinstitutionalization: An application of Bronfenbrenner’s social ecology model. Journal of Counseling and Development, 73(4), 379–383. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.waikato.ac.nz/docview/229806036?pq-origsite=summon

Brisenden, S. (1986). Independent living and the medical model of disability. Disability, Handicap & Society, 1(2), 173–178. doi.org/10.1080/02674648666780171

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1992). Ecological systems theory. In Vasta, R. (Ed.) Six theories of child development: Revised formulations and current issues (pp. 187–249). London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2007). The bioecological model of human development. In Damon, R & Lerner, W.M. (Eds. ) Handbook of child psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0114/abstract

Clegg, J., Murphy, E., & Almack, K. (2010). Transition: A moment of change. In Grant, G., Ramcharan, P. Flynn, M., & M.Richardson, M. (Eds.) Learning disability: A life cycle approach (pp. 203–216). UK: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Davis, L. (2014). The end of normal: Identity in a Biocultural Era. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Department of Justice. (2010). 2010 ADA regulations. Retrieved from http://www.ada.gov/2010_regs.htm

Drew, C. J., & Hardman, M. L. (2000). Chapter 10: The adult with mental retardation. In Hardman, M.L. Ed., Mental retardation: A life cycle approach (7th ed., pp. 292–320). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Emerson, E. (2005, September 28). Adults with learning difficulties in England 2003/04 [Publication]. Retrieved from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130107105354/http:/www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsStatistics/DH_4120033

Forrester-Jones, R., Carpenter, J., Coolen-Schrijner, P., Cambridge, P., Tate, A., Beecham, J., … Wooff, D. (2006). The social networks of people with intellectual disability living in the community 12 years after resettlement from long-stay hospitals. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(4), 285–295. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3148.2006.00263.x

Grey, J. M., Griffith, G. M., Totsika, V., & Hastings, R. P. (2015). Families’ experiences of seeking out-of-home accommodation for their adult child with an intellectual disability. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 12(1), 47–57. http://doi.org/10.1111/jppi.12106

Hendricks, D. R., & Wehman, P. (2009). Transition from school to adulthood for youth with autism spectrum disorders: Review and recommendations. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 24(2), 77–88.

Henninger, N. A., & Taylor, J. L. (2014). Family perspectives on a successful transition to adulthood for individuals with disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 52(2), 98–111.

Janus, A. L. (2009). Disability and the transition to adulthood. Social Forces, 88(1), 99–120. doi://doi.org/10.1353/sof.0.0248

Jokinen, N. S., Janicki, M. P., Hogan, M., & Force, L. T. (2012). The middle years and beyond: Transitions and families of adults with Down syndrome. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 18(2), 59–69. Retrieved from http://oadd.org/journal/volume-18-number-2-special-joint-issue-ijds-volume-1-number-1/

Kielland, C. B. (2010). Deinstitutionalisation in Norway: The process, challenges and solutions. Tizard Learning Disability Review, 15(4), 15–21.

Leiter, V., & Waugh, A. (2009). Moving out: Residential independence among young adults with disabilities and the role of families. Marriage & Family Review, 45(5), 519–537. doi://doi.org/10.1080/01494920903050847

Marston, G., & McDonald, C. (2006). Analysing social policy: A governmental approach. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Ministry of Social Development. (2015). NZ disability strategy. Office for Disability Issues. Wellington, NZ. Retrieved from http://www.odi.govt.nz/nzds/

New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. (1975). Disabled Persons Community Welfare Act 1975 No 122 (as at 3 March 2010), Public Act Contents – New Zealand Legislation. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1975/0122/latest/DLM436790.html

New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. (1989). Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989 No 24 (as at 6 December 2014), Public Act Contents – New Zealand Legislation. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/

/0024/latest/DLM147088.html#DLM150001

New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. (2000). New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act 2000 No 91 (as at 30 June 2015), Public Act Contents – New Zealand Legislation. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2000/0091/latest/DLM80051.html

New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. (2001). Health and Disability Services (Safety) Act 2001 No 93 (as at 5 August 2013), Public Act Contents – New Zealand Legislation. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2001/0093/latest/DLM119975.html

New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. (2014). Vulnerable Children Act 2014 No 40 (as at 01 July 2015), Public Act 5 Interpretation – New Zealand Legislation. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0040/latest/DLM5501627.html

Nirje, B. (1969). The normalization principle and its human management implications. In R. Kugel & W. Wolfensberger (Eds.), Changing residential patterns for the mentally retarded (pp. 363–376). Washington, DC: President’s Committee on Mental Retardation.

Nirje, B. (1985). The basis and logic of the normalization principle. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 65–68. doi://doi.org/10.3109/13668258509008747

Oliver, M. (1990). The politics of disablement: A sociological approach. In Oliver, M. (Ed) The politics of disablement: A sociological approach (pp. 7–8). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Oliver, M. (2013). The social model of disability: Thirty years on. Disability & Society, 28(7), 1024–1026. doi://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2013.818773

Owens, J. (2015). Exploring the critiques of the social model of disability: The transformative possibility of Arendt’s notion of power. Sociology of Health & Illness, 37(3), 385–403. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12199

Pallisera, M., Vilà, M., & Fullana, J. (2014). Transition to adulthood for young people with intellectual disability: Exploring transition partnerships from the point of view of professionals in school and postschool services. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 39(4), 333–341. http://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2014.938032

Palmer, S. B. (2010). Self-determination: A life-span perspective. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(6), 1–16.

Schlossberg, N. K. (1995). The transition framework. In M. Anderson, J. Goodman, & N. K. Schlossberg (Eds.), Counseling adults in transition: Linking practice with theory (p. 28). Springer Publishing. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.nz/books?id=BCobGX6ofOMC

Shakespeare, T. (1999). “Losing the plot”? Medical and activist discourses of contemporary genetics and disability. Sociology of Health & Illness, 21(5), 669–688. doi://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.00178

Shakespeare, T. (2013). Facing up to disability. Community Eye Health Journal, 26(81), 1–3.

Shakespeare, T., & Watson, N. (2001). The social model of disability: An outdated ideology? In S. Barnett & B. Altman (Eds.), Exploring theories and expanding methodologies: Where we are and where we need to go (Vol. 2, pp. 9–28). Emerald Group. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1016/S1479-3547(01)80018-X

Stewart, C., Gates, S., Milner, P., Mirfin-Veitch, B., & Schumayer, D. (2008). An examination of the outcome of the resettlement of residents from the Kimberley Centre. The Donald Beasley Institute. Retrieved from http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/examination-outcome-resettlement-residents-kimberley-centre

Vehmas, S., & Shakespeare, T. (2014). Disability, harm, and the origins of limited opportunities. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 23(1), 41–7.

Weinbach, H. (2009). Commentary on “deinstitutionalisation and community living for people with intellectual disabilities in Austria”. Tizard Learning Disability Review, 14(1),14–17)

Werner, S. (2015). Public stigma and the perception of rights: Differences between intellectual and physical disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 262–271. doi://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.12.030

World Health Organisation. (2015). WHO | Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/disabilities/en |

Winn, S., & Hay, I. (2009). Transition from school for youths with a disability: Issues and challenges. Disability & Society, 24(1), 103–115. doi://doi.org/10.1080/09687590802535725

Wolfensberger, W. (1977). The normalization principle and some major implications to architectural-environmental design. In M.J Bednar (Ed). Barrier free environments. (2nd, pp.135-166) Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross.

Wolfensberger, W. (1983). Social role valorization: A proposed new term for the principle of normalization. Mental Retardation, 21(6), 234–239.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11157/anzswj-vol29iss1id217

Refbacks





Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.