Implementing staff supervision training in a corrections environment
Keywords:supervision training, supervision, staff supervision, implementation, corrections
INTRODUCTION: Many human service organisations aim to improve the delivery of supervision to their professional staff. In the Aotearoa New Zealand Department of Corrections, changes led to a project which involved the implementation of in-house supervision and supervision training for programme facilitators. This article describes the project and reports on a subsequent review against a retrospective literature review. The content, methods and evaluations of seven deliveries of the week-long supervision training are then critically reflected on through the lens of the literature, with concluding recommendations.
SEARCH STRATEGY AND DATA: The literature review was defined by the use of key terms to search four databases and a library catalogue, resulting in use of 25 articles. While not set up as a formal research project, data from participant evaluations of eight, week-long supervision training courses were analysed, as were results of a national supervision survey.
FINDINGS: Training content, methods and principles were generally well aligned with what is identified as important in the literature, with a few omissions such as assessment processes of supervisors when in the field. Data from participant evaluations showed strong areas of the training (such as skill development through practices) using the model prescribed. A relatively high level of participant satisfaction was demonstrated in the evaluation material. Specific challenges to staff supervision in the Department of Corrections’ context were identified with reference to the literature and are discussed.
CONCLUSION: Seven areas of further focus were identified and recommendations are made with reference to the literature.
Arvidsson, B., Löfgren, H., & Fridlund, B. (2001). Psychiatric nurses’ conceptions of how a group supervision programme in nursing care influences their professional competence: A 4-year follow-up study. Journal of Nursing Management, 9, 161–171.
Bailey, C. (2009). Recruitment and access. In P. Henderson (Ed.), Supervisor training issues and approaches (pp. 43–54). London, England: Karnac Books.
Bambling, M., King, R., Raue, P., Schweitzer, R., & Lambert, W. (2006). Clinical supervision: Its influence on client rated working alliance and client symptom reduction in the brief treatment of major depression. Psychotherapy Research, 16, 317–331.
Beddoe, L. (2010). Surveillance or reflection: Professional supervision in “the risk society.” British Journal of Social Work, 40, 1279–1296. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcq018
Bennett, S., & Deal, K. H. (2012). Supervision training: What we know and what we need to know. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 82, 2–3. doi:10.1080/00377317.2012.693023
Burnard, P., Edwards, D., Hannigan, B., Fothergill, A., Coyle, D., Cooper, L., … Adams, J. (2003). The effectiveness of clinical supervision on burnout amongst community mental health nurses in Wales. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 10, 231–238.
Casemore, R. (2009). It is all in the relationship: Exploring the differences between supervision training and counselling training. In P. Henderson (Ed.), Supervisor training issues and approaches (pp. 15–25). London, England: Karnac Books.
Clare, M. (2001). Operationalising professional supervision in this age of accountabilities. Australian Social Work, 54(2), 69–79. doi:10.1080/03124070108414325
Davys, A., & Beddoe, L. (2010). Best practice in professional supervision: A guide for the helping professions. London, England: Jessica Kingsley.
Durie, M. (1998). Whaiora: Maōri health development (2nd ed.). Auckland, NZ: Oxford University Press.
Edwards, D., Burnard, P., Hannigan, B., Cooper, L., Adams, J., Juggessur, T., … Coyle, D. (2006). Clinical supervision and burnout: The influence of clinical supervision for community mental health nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15, 1007–1015
Egan, R. (2012). Australian social work supervision practice in 2007, Australian Social Work, 65(2), 171–184. doi:10.1080/0312407X.2011.653575
Giddings, M. M., Cleveland, P. H., & Smith, C. H. (2007). Responding to inadequate supervision, The Clinical Supervisor, 25(1), 105–126. doi:10.1300/J001v25n01_08
Grant, A. (2009). Training for supervising cognitive-behavioural practitioners and others. In P. Henderson (Ed.). Supervisor training issues and approaches. (pp. 209–222). London, England: Karnac Books.
Hair, H. J. (2013). The purpose and duration of supervision, and the training and discipline of supervisors: What social workers say they need to provide effective services. British Journal of Social Work, 43, 1562–1588. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcs071
Hawkins, P., & Shohet, R. (2012). Supervision in the helping professions (4th ed.). Maidenhead, England: Open University Press. Henderson, P. (2009). Supervisor training issues and approaches. London, England: Karnac Books.
Hill, C. E. (2014). Helping skills training. In C. E. Watkins & D. L. Milne, (Eds.), Wiley international handbook of clinical supervision (pp. 329–341). Chichester, NY: John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/9781118846360
Kavanagh, D. J., Bennett-Levy, J., & Crow, N. (2002). A cognitive behavioural approach to supervision. In M. McMahon & W. Patton (Eds.), Supervision in the helping professions a practical approach (pp. 131–141). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Prentice Hall.
Milne, D. (2009). Evidence-based clinical supervision. Principles and practice. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Milne, D. L., Sheikh, A. I., Pattison, S., & Wilkinson, A. (2011). Evidence-based training for clinical supervisors: A systematic review of 11 controlled studies, The Clinical Supervisor, 30(1), 53–71. doi:10.1080/07325223.2011.564955
Morrison, T. (2005). Strength to strength. A facilitator’s guide to preparing supervisees, students and trainees for supervision. Brighton, England: Pavilion Publishing.
O’Donoghue, K. B., Baskerville, M. A., & Trlin, A. D. (1988). Professional supervision in the new managerial climate of the Department of Corrections. New Zealand Association of Social Workers Inc. Aotearoa Conference, Hamilton, New Zealand.
O’Donoghue, K., & Tsui, M. (2013). Social work supervision research (1970–2010): The way we were and the way ahead. British Journal of Social Work, 45, 616–633. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bct115
Pitama, S., Robertson, P., Cram, F., Gillies, M., Huria, T., & Dallas-Katoa, W. (2007). Meihana model: A clinical assessment framework. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 36(3), 118-125.
Pollack, S. (2010). Labelling clients 'risky': Social work and the neo-liberal welfare state. British Journal of Social Work, 40(4), 1263–1278. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcn079
Rice, F., Cullen, P., McKenna, H., Kelly, B., Keeney, S., & Richey, R. (2007). Clinical supervision for mental health nurses in Northern Ireland: Formulating best practice guidelines. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 14, 516–521.
Waskett, C. (2009). Learning to supervise using a solution-focused approach. In P. Henderson (Ed.), Supervisor training issues and approaches (pp. 223–230). London, England: Karnac Books.
Watkins, C.E. (1997). Some concluding thoughts about psychotherapy supervision, in Handbook of psychotherapy supervision, Watkins C.E. (Ed.) (pp.603-616) New York NY: Wiley
Watkins, C. E., & Wang, C. D. C. (2014). On the education of clinical supervisors. In C. Watkins & D. Milne (Eds.), Wiley international handbook of clinical supervision (pp. 177–203). Chichester, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Webster, M. (2006). Professional supervision as continuing professional education: Recent Community Probation Service experience in a turbulent environment. In L. Beddoe & J. G. Jesson (Eds.), Continuing professional education: Out of bounds and borders: Proceedings of the conference (pp. 224–231). Auckland, NZ: University of Auckland.
Wood, H., & Brown, G. (2014). Psychoanalytically-informed clinical supervision of staff in probation services. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 28(3), 330–344. doi:10.1080/02668734.2014.922248
Younge, J., & Campbell, A. (2013). A qualitative study exploring the perceived impact of supervision training on cognitive therapy supervisor practice. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 6(e1), 1–14. doi:10.1017/S1754470X13000068
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
By completing the online submission process, you confirm you accept this agreement. The following is the entire agreement between you and the Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers (ANZASW) and it may be modified only in writing.
You and any co-authors
If you are completing this agreement on behalf of co-authors, you confirm that you are acting on their behalf with their knowledge.
By submitting the work you are:
- granting the ANZASW the right of first publication of this work;
- confirming that the work is original; and
- confirming that the work has not been published in any other form.
Once published, you are free to use the final, accepted version in any way, as outlined below under Copyright.
You assign copyright in the final, accepted version of your article to the ANZASW. You and any co-authors of the article retain the right to be identified as authors of the work.
The ANZASW will publish the final, accepted manuscript under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC BY 4.0). This licence allows anyone – including you – to share, copy, distribute, transmit, adapt and make commercial use of the work without needing additional permission, provided appropriate attribution is made to the original author or source.
A human-readable summary of the licence is available from http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0, which includes a link to the full licence text.
Under this licence you can use the final, published version of the article freely – such as depositing a copy in your institutional research repository, uploading a copy to your profile on an academic networking site or including it in a different publication, such as a collection of articles on a topic or in conference proceedings – provided that original publication in Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work is acknowledged.
This agreement has no effect on any pre-publication versions or elements, which remain entirely yours, and to which we claim no right.
Reviewers hold copyright in their own comments and should not be further copied in any way without their permission.
The copyright of others
If your article includes the copyright material of others (e.g. graphs, diagrams etc.), you confirm that your use either:
- falls within the limits of fair dealing for the purposes of criticism and review or fair use; OR
- that you have gained permission from the rights holder for publication in an open access journal.